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Understanding Morphology in Romanian Grammar: A Comprehensive Guide

Morphology, a vital component of grammar, investigates words as grammatical units, examining their form modifications, inflections, and grammatical values. In the context of the Romanian language, morphology elucidates the structure and function of various word classes, facilitating a deeper comprehension of language mechanics. This article explores the fundamentals of morphology in Romanian, elucidating its significance and structure.

Classes of Morphology

Morphology encompasses ten morphological classes: noun, adjective, pronoun, article, numeral, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. These classes categorize words based on their grammatical properties, offering insight into their syntactic roles and structural behaviour.

Fundamental Units of Morphology

The fundamental units of morphology are parts of speech, which are further classified into flexible and inflexible categories based on their ability to undergo form modifications. Flexible parts of speech, such as nouns, adjectives, pronouns, articles, numerals, and verbs, alter their forms to denote grammatical categories. In contrast, inflexible parts of speech, including adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, maintain a constant form in speech.

Flexible Parts of Speech

Flexible parts of speech exhibit diverse grammatical categories, including gender, number, case, and degree of comparison. These categories contribute to the nuanced expression and syntactic flexibility of the language.

Inflexible Parts of Speech

Inflexible parts of speech, while static in form, play crucial roles in language structure and cohesion. These parts of speech facilitate sentence construction and convey essential syntactic relationships.

Morphological Categories of Flexible Parts of Speech

Each flexible part of speech possesses distinct morphological categories that govern its form and function within sentences. Understanding these categories is essential for proficient language use and communication.

Noun Morphology

Nouns exhibit morphological categories such as gender, number, and case, influencing their agreement with other elements in a sentence.

Adjective Morphology

Adjectives undergo form modifications to indicate gender, number, case, and degree of comparison, enhancing their descriptive capacity and syntactic versatility.

Pronoun Morphology

Pronouns display morphological categories including gender, number, case, and person, enabling precise reference and substitution within discourse.

Verb Morphology

Verbs showcase morphological categories such as tense, mood, voice, person, and number, delineating temporal and modal distinctions in verbal expression.


Morphology serves as the cornerstone of grammatical analysis, elucidating the intricate structure and dynamics of language. By comprehending the morphological intricacies of Romanian, learners can navigate linguistic nuances with confidence and precision.

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